10. Wood Working
PRE TEXT EXERCISES
1. Check up if you read these words correctly:
human ['hju.’.mon], civilization [siv.ol.ai'zeijbn], stick [stik], hunting ['hAn.tirj], gear [gior], carving ['ka:.vir)], chair [tjear], sanctuary ['s3egk.tjba.ri], bow [bau], ancient ['em.tjbnt], coffin [’ka:.fm], adze [aedz], chisel [tjiz.al], joint [djomt], leather ['led.or], lashing ['laejur)], varnish ['va:.mj], sycamore ['sik.a.mo:r], altar ['o:l.tor], coniferous [knn.i.far]
2. Give the initial forms of the following words
tools, used, known, northern, worker, originally, planning, brought, largely, descriptions
3. State to what parts of speech the following words belong:
since, include, increasingly, considerable, inner, progenitors, intricate, extensive, joinery, upon
4. Find the nouns in the following word-groups:
the development of civilization; flint tools; wooden vessels; to invent the art of veneering; the inner coffins found in the tombs
5. Check if you remember the following verbs:
to revise, to forget, to appear, to foresee, to receive, to obtain, to calculate, to hope, to prove, to follow, to expect, to enable, to belong, to resemble, to accomplish
6. Translate the following word groups into Russian:
early humans; the development of civilization; degrees of skill; tree trunks; wooden folding-chairs; the Iron Age; the progenitors of Chinese woodworking; flint tools; stone tools; wooden animal statues; the use of plywood; descriptions of dimensions
Along with stone, mud, and animal parts, wood was one of the first materials worked by early humans. Microwear analysis of the Mousterian stone tools used by the Neanderthals show that many were used to work wood. The development of civilization was closely tied to the development of increasingly greater degrees of skill in working these materials.
Among early finds of wooden tools are the worked sticks from Kalambo Falls, Clacton-on-Sea and Lehringen. The spears from Schoningen (Germany) provide some of the first examples of wooden hunting gear. Flint tools were used for carving. Since Neolithic times, carved wooden vessels are known, for example, from the Linear Pottery culture wells at Kiickhofen and Eythra. Examples of Bronze Age wood-carving include tree trunks worked into coffins from northern Germany and Denmark and wooden folding-chairs. The site of Fellbach-Schmieden in Germany has provided fine examples of wooden animal statues from the Iron Age. Wooden idols from the La Тёпе period are known from a sanctuary at the source of the Seine in France.
Woodworking shop in Germany in 1568, the worker in front is using a bow saw, the one in the background is planning.
Two ancient civilizations that used woodworking were the Egyptians and the Chinese. Woodworking is depicted in many ancient Egyptian drawings, and a considerable amount of ancient Egyptian furniture (such as stools, chairs, tables, beds, chests) has been preserved in tombs. As well, the inner coffins found in the tombs were also made of wood. The metal used by the Egyptians for woodworking tools was originally copper and eventually, after 2000 BC bronze as ironworking was unknown until much later. Commonly used woodworking tools included axes, adzes, and chisels, pull saws, and bow drills. Mortise and tenon joints are attested from the earliest Predynastic period. These joints were strengthened using pegs, dowels and leather or cord lashings. Animal glue came to be used only in the New Kingdom period. Ancient Egyptians invented the art of veneering and used varnishes for finishing, though the composition of these varnishes is unknown. Although different native acacias were used, as was the wood from the local sycamore and tamarisk trees, deforestation in the Nile valley resulted in the need for the importation of wood, notably cedar, but also Aleppo pine, boxwood and oak, starting from the Second Dynasty.
The progenitors of Chinese woodworking are considered to be Lu Ban and his wife Lady Yun, from the Spring and Autumn Period. Lu Ban is said to have brought the plane, chalk-line, and other tools to China. His teachings are supposedly left behind in the book Lu Ban Jing ("Manuscript of Lu Ban"), although it was written some 1500 years after his death. This book is filled largely with descriptions of dimensions for use in building various items such as flower pots, tables, altars, etc., and also contains extensive instructions concerning Feng Shui. It mentions almost nothing of the intricate glue-less and nail-less joinery for which Chinese furniture was so famous.
Historically, woodworkers relied upon the woods native to their region, until transportation and trade innovations made more exotic woods available to the craftsman. Woods can be sorted into three basic types: hardwoods typified by tight grain and derived from broadleaf trees, softwoods from coniferous trees, and man-made materials such as plywood and MDF.
Typically furniture such as tables and chairs is made using solid stock, and cabinet/fixture makers employ the use of plywood and other man made panel products.
[from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Woodworking]
1. Fill in the blanks with the following words and words combinations:
period, ancient, humans, depicted, copper, tools, invented
1. Wood was one of the first materials worked by early ....
With the oversaturation with technology that seems to go hand in hand with modem living, it's no surprise that handmade hobbies are making a huge comeback. Woodworking has always been a popular choice, but more and more people are beginning to take up this ancient craft. Creating original art and furniture is fulfilling. Having the right tools makes the hobby even better. Before you start to stock your woodshop, you will want to have a good overview of exactly what tools you will need to finish projects effortlessly.
Most hobbyist woodworkers build their tool collection a little bit at a time. The most common basic tools for beginner to purchase are a band saw, router and detail sander. You can choose between orbital sanders and drum sanders, depending on what your anticipated projects are. Once you have a way to cut, shape and sand, more complex and specialized tools can be added to your collection. This can include things like wood lathes, a thickness planer and a biscuit joiner. A dovetail jig is also a common addition to the modem woodshop.
After you have the basics down, you will have a chance to play with your tools for awhile and get a better idea what your favorite projects are. You will also become aware of the limitations that you face in the woodshop. Of course, for every problem, there is certainly a way to fix it. For example, after choking on sawdust for awhile, you will have a better idea what you want in a dust collection system. This will keep the air clean for breathing while you work. In addition, you should become aware of the various features that you use the most and decide which tools may be good candidates for an upgrade.
Working with wood becomes much more than a hobby. If you have a true love for the craft, you may even decide to turn it into a business and do it on a full time basis. You also may be really ambitious and take on an extremely large and complicated project, such as building your own home. Having a tool such as a portable sawmill can accommodate that goal quite nicely. Wherever your hobby takes you, know that you have the right tools can really help you go to the next level.
8. Give the English equivalents of the following:
резьба по дереву, охотничье снаряжение, деревянные сосуды, стволы деревьев, деревянные складные стулья, топор, тесло, долота, пила, сверло, лук, прародители, хвойные деревья, ручная работа, древние ремесла, токарный станок, столяр, лесопильный завод
REVISION GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1. Complete the following sentences adding the subordinate clauses:
a) subject clauses
1. That ... is very important. 2. That ... is common knowledge. 3. That ... is necessary nowadays. 4. That ... goes without saying. 5. It is desirable that... .6. That... is unquestionable.
b) predicative clauses
1. The problem is ... .2. The objective of this organization is .... 3. The main effect of their activity is ... .4. The difficulty was ... .5. The task they are working at is ... .
c) object clauses
1. We know that ... . 2. The article reads that ... . 3. The speaker emphasized that ... .4. One should remember that... . 5. The head of the laboratory reported that....
d) attributive clauses
1. The lecture that ... was about international telecommunication organizations. 2. The Plenipotentiary conference which ... meets once in 5 years. 3. The development of new technologies brings about many changes which ... . 4. Mendeleev’s Periodic Table of chemical elements, which ... , has opened a new era not only in chemistry but also in other branches of science. 5. The doctrine of conditioned and unconditioned reflexes was created by Pavlov who
e) adverbial clauses
SIGNS, EXPRESSIONS AND FORMULES
Scientific texts contain a lot of mathematical expressions, measure symbols, signs, tables, schemes, figures. You should be able to comprehend the information expressed by all these means. To do this learns the most important mathematical symbols and signs. For example: -square, + - plus, л/ - square root, < - angle and others.
instrument, public, constitution, convention, organ, conference, era, monopoly, administration, result, focus, global, basis, role, limit, assembly, recommendations, centre, function, standardization, orbital, position, fundamental, structure, method, forum
3. Translate the derivatives:
to cooperate - cooperation -
4. Translate the following word combinations:
to establish a new business; to establish an organization; to maintain cooperation; to maintain friendly relations; to promote good feelings; to promote technical assistance; depository of documentation; annual basis; annual income; executive body; to approve recommendations; to approve expenses; re-assessment of functions and activities; reassessment of values; to streamline the organization; to streamline production
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. What reference material will you use if you have to read certain mathematical signs and symbols? Do you know many of them in English?
|< Пред||СОДЕРЖАНИЕ||ОРИГИНАЛ||След >|