10. Wood Working

Section 1.

PRE TEXT EXERCISES

1. Check up if you read these words correctly:

human ['hju.’.mon], civilization [siv.ol.ai'zeijbn], stick [stik], hunting ['hAn.tirj], gear [gior], carving ['ka:.vir)], chair [tjear], sanctuary ['s3egk.tjba.ri], bow [bau], ancient ['em.tjbnt], coffin [’ka:.fm], adze [aedz], chisel [tjiz.al], joint [djomt], leather ['led.or], lashing ['laejur)], varnish ['va:.mj], sycamore ['sik.a.mo:r], altar ['o:l.tor], coniferous [knn.i.far]

2. Give the initial forms of the following words

tools, used, known, northern, worker, originally, planning, brought, largely, descriptions

3. State to what parts of speech the following words belong:

since, include, increasingly, considerable, inner, progenitors, intricate, extensive, joinery, upon

4. Find the nouns in the following word-groups:

the development of civilization; flint tools; wooden vessels; to invent the art of veneering; the inner coffins found in the tombs

5. Check if you remember the following verbs:

to revise, to forget, to appear, to foresee, to receive, to obtain, to calculate, to hope, to prove, to follow, to expect, to enable, to belong, to resemble, to accomplish

6. Translate the following word groups into Russian:

early humans; the development of civilization; degrees of skill; tree trunks; wooden folding-chairs; the Iron Age; the progenitors of Chinese woodworking; flint tools; stone tools; wooden animal statues; the use of plywood; descriptions of dimensions

  • 7. Make up word combinations to describe some objects and people. Use these word combinations in your own sentences.
  • 1. dress, cotton, summer;
  • 2. dark, red, tulip;
  • 3. box, big, heavy;
  • 4. old, wooden, tools;
  • 5. green, tall, plant;
  • 6. light, table, square;
  • 7. blue, river, deep;
  • 8. old, soft, hat;
  • 9. oval, low, table;
  • 10. ancient, furniture, chests.

TEXT A

WOOD WORKING

Along with stone, mud, and animal parts, wood was one of the first materials worked by early humans. Microwear analysis of the Mousterian stone tools used by the Neanderthals show that many were used to work wood. The development of civilization was closely tied to the development of increasingly greater degrees of skill in working these materials.

Among early finds of wooden tools are the worked sticks from Kalambo Falls, Clacton-on-Sea and Lehringen. The spears from Schoningen (Germany) provide some of the first examples of wooden hunting gear. Flint tools were used for carving. Since Neolithic times, carved wooden vessels are known, for example, from the Linear Pottery culture wells at Kiickhofen and Eythra. Examples of Bronze Age wood-carving include tree trunks worked into coffins from northern Germany and Denmark and wooden folding-chairs. The site of Fellbach-Schmieden in Germany has provided fine examples of wooden animal statues from the Iron Age. Wooden idols from the La Тёпе period are known from a sanctuary at the source of the Seine in France.

Woodworking shop in Germany in 1568, the worker in front is using a bow saw, the one in the background is planning.

Two ancient civilizations that used woodworking were the Egyptians and the Chinese. Woodworking is depicted in many ancient Egyptian drawings, and a considerable amount of ancient Egyptian furniture (such as stools, chairs, tables, beds, chests) has been preserved in tombs. As well, the inner coffins found in the tombs were also made of wood. The metal used by the Egyptians for woodworking tools was originally copper and eventually, after 2000 BC bronze as ironworking was unknown until much later. Commonly used woodworking tools included axes, adzes, and chisels, pull saws, and bow drills. Mortise and tenon joints are attested from the earliest Predynastic period. These joints were strengthened using pegs, dowels and leather or cord lashings. Animal glue came to be used only in the New Kingdom period. Ancient Egyptians invented the art of veneering and used varnishes for finishing, though the composition of these varnishes is unknown. Although different native acacias were used, as was the wood from the local sycamore and tamarisk trees, deforestation in the Nile valley resulted in the need for the importation of wood, notably cedar, but also Aleppo pine, boxwood and oak, starting from the Second Dynasty.

The progenitors of Chinese woodworking are considered to be Lu Ban and his wife Lady Yun, from the Spring and Autumn Period. Lu Ban is said to have brought the plane, chalk-line, and other tools to China. His teachings are supposedly left behind in the book Lu Ban Jing ("Manuscript of Lu Ban"), although it was written some 1500 years after his death. This book is filled largely with descriptions of dimensions for use in building various items such as flower pots, tables, altars, etc., and also contains extensive instructions concerning Feng Shui. It mentions almost nothing of the intricate glue-less and nail-less joinery for which Chinese furniture was so famous.

Materials

Historically, woodworkers relied upon the woods native to their region, until transportation and trade innovations made more exotic woods available to the craftsman. Woods can be sorted into three basic types: hardwoods typified by tight grain and derived from broadleaf trees, softwoods from coniferous trees, and man-made materials such as plywood and MDF.

Typically furniture such as tables and chairs is made using solid stock, and cabinet/fixture makers employ the use of plywood and other man made panel products.

[from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Woodworking]

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Fill in the blanks with the following words and words combinations:

period, ancient, humans, depicted, copper, tools, invented

1. Wood was one of the first materials worked by early ....

  • 2. Flint... were used for carving.
  • 3. Two ... civilizations that used wood-working were the Egyptians and the Chinese.
  • 4. The metal used by the Egyptians for woodworking tools was originally....
  • 5. Ancient Egyptians ... the art of veneering and used varnishes for finishing.
  • 6. Woodworking is ... in many ancient Egyptian drawings.
  • 7. Animal glue came to be used only in the New Kingdom ....
  • 2. Answer the following questions:
  • 1. Where was woodworking depicted?
  • 2. When did animal glue come to be used?
  • 3. What basic types can woods be sorted into?
  • 4. What was Chinese furniture so famous by?
  • 5. What was the development of civilization closely tied to?
  • 3. Look through the text and say what its main points are.
  • 4. Translate from Russian into English:
  • 1. Человек использовал древесину на протяжении тысячелетий для многих целей, в первую очередь в качестве топлива, а также в качестве строительного материала, для изготовления инструментов, оружия, мебели, тары, произведений искусства и бумаги.
  • 2. Древесина служит исходным сырьем для выработки более двадцати тысяч продуктов и изделий.
  • 3. Способы переработки древесного сырья делят на три группы: механические, химико-механические и химические.
  • 4. Для производства бумаги и картона широко применяются волокнистые полуфабрикаты в виде древесной массы и целлюлозы.
  • 5. Для нужд бумажного и картонного производства используется около 93 % целлюлозы.
  • 6. Остальная часть служит сырьем для химической переработки на искусственное вискозное или ацетатное волокно, кинопленку, пластмассу, бездымный порох, целлофан и другие продукты.
  • 7. Древесину используют также для производства целлюлозы, этилового и бутилового спиртов, бумаги, картона, органических кислот, канифоли и других продуктов для народного хозяйства.
  • 8. Применение древесины и конструкций из нее в строительстве обусловлено ее доступностью, простотой обработки и основными положительными качествами.
  • 5. Retell text A in short.
  • 6. Write a summary about one of the most famous furniture designer.
  • 7. Read and translate text В without using a dictionary.

TEXT В

With the oversaturation with technology that seems to go hand in hand with modem living, it's no surprise that handmade hobbies are making a huge comeback. Woodworking has always been a popular choice, but more and more people are beginning to take up this ancient craft. Creating original art and furniture is fulfilling. Having the right tools makes the hobby even better. Before you start to stock your woodshop, you will want to have a good overview of exactly what tools you will need to finish projects effortlessly.

Most hobbyist woodworkers build their tool collection a little bit at a time. The most common basic tools for beginner to purchase are a band saw, router and detail sander. You can choose between orbital sanders and drum sanders, depending on what your anticipated projects are. Once you have a way to cut, shape and sand, more complex and specialized tools can be added to your collection. This can include things like wood lathes, a thickness planer and a biscuit joiner. A dovetail jig is also a common addition to the modem woodshop.

After you have the basics down, you will have a chance to play with your tools for awhile and get a better idea what your favorite projects are. You will also become aware of the limitations that you face in the woodshop. Of course, for every problem, there is certainly a way to fix it. For example, after choking on sawdust for awhile, you will have a better idea what you want in a dust collection system. This will keep the air clean for breathing while you work. In addition, you should become aware of the various features that you use the most and decide which tools may be good candidates for an upgrade.

Working with wood becomes much more than a hobby. If you have a true love for the craft, you may even decide to turn it into a business and do it on a full time basis. You also may be really ambitious and take on an extremely large and complicated project, such as building your own home. Having a tool such as a portable sawmill can accommodate that goal quite nicely. Wherever your hobby takes you, know that you have the right tools can really help you go to the next level.

8. Give the English equivalents of the following:

резьба по дереву, охотничье снаряжение, деревянные сосуды, стволы деревьев, деревянные складные стулья, топор, тесло, долота, пила, сверло, лук, прародители, хвойные деревья, ручная работа, древние ремесла, токарный станок, столяр, лесопильный завод

Section 2.

REVISION GRAMMAR EXERCISES

1. Complete the following sentences adding the subordinate clauses:

a) subject clauses

1. That ... is very important. 2. That ... is common knowledge. 3. That ... is necessary nowadays. 4. That ... goes without saying. 5. It is desirable that... .6. That... is unquestionable.

b) predicative clauses

1. The problem is ... .2. The objective of this organization is .... 3. The main effect of their activity is ... .4. The difficulty was ... .5. The task they are working at is ... .

c) object clauses

1. We know that ... . 2. The article reads that ... . 3. The speaker emphasized that ... .4. One should remember that... . 5. The head of the laboratory reported that....

d) attributive clauses

1. The lecture that ... was about international telecommunication organizations. 2. The Plenipotentiary conference which ... meets once in 5 years. 3. The development of new technologies brings about many changes which ... . 4. Mendeleev’s Periodic Table of chemical elements, which ... , has opened a new era not only in chemistry but also in other branches of science. 5. The doctrine of conditioned and unconditioned reflexes was created by Pavlov who

e) adverbial clauses

  • 1. This organization effectively extends international cooperation while ... . 2.1 have so much work this week that... .3. Since ... , she stayed in her room most of the time. 4. I used to read a lot although .... 5.1 was never allowed to do things as ... .
  • 2. Connect the pairs of sentences with the conjunctions “that”, “which”, “who”.
  • 1. The negotiations should begin immediately. It is very desirable.
  • 2. The question should be reconsidered. He suggested it.
  • 3. A man has no patience. He cannot play chess well.
  • 4.1 cannot find the letter. You gave it to me this morning.
  • 5. The magazine is very interesting. You gave it to me.
  • 6. He was ill. Nobody knew.
  • 7. His friend had returned to Moscow. He told me about it.
  • 8. Here is the book. She spoke about this book yesterday.
  • 9. They sent for the doctor. He will be here in an hour.
  • 3. Make up as many sentences as you can using the words given in the table.

nouns

verbs

adjectives

adverbs

cooperation

to establish

major

traditionally

improvement

to maintain

international

clearly

assistance

to promote

rational

almost

development

to harmonize

technical

primarily

facilities

to connect

efficient

services

to meet

national

actions

to determine

distinct

union

to participate

sovereign

distinction

to approve

executive

network

to guide

principal

body

to continue

periodic

conference

to require

essential

member

to review

fundamental

responsibility

thorough

  • 4. Use prepositions where necessary to complete the sentences.
  • 1. You shouldn’t be angry with the children. They are not to blame ... our being late.
  • 2. Will you be interested ... continuing our negotiations?
  • 3. I can’t keep you ... making mistakes, you’ll have to think for yourself.
  • 4. Now that you are finishing school, what do you dream ... doing in the future?
  • 5. I must say I had a lot of trouble ... finding the information we needed.
  • 6. The first time she took the exam she failed, but the second time she succeeded ... passing it.
  • 7. I don’t believe ... learning a foreign language within a couple of weeks.
  • 8. I’ve been looking......going to London many years now.
  • 9. To tell the truth, I’m not used ... being lied to.
  • 10. My mother often complains ... feeling unwell in rainy weather.

Section 3.

SIGNS, EXPRESSIONS AND FORMULES

Scientific texts contain a lot of mathematical expressions, measure symbols, signs, tables, schemes, figures. You should be able to comprehend the information expressed by all these means. To do this learns the most important mathematical symbols and signs. For example: -square, + - plus, л/ - square root, < - angle and others.

EXERCISES

  • 1. Read the following mathematical signs and symbols and give their equivalents in Russian:
  • 16 = 24; 50%; 74.5°F; 20°C; a - be = c; % km; H2O; 3.217; 50 mi/h; a3= logcd;---; ....
  • 2. Pronounce the following international words and translate them into Russian.

instrument, public, constitution, convention, organ, conference, era, monopoly, administration, result, focus, global, basis, role, limit, assembly, recommendations, centre, function, standardization, orbital, position, fundamental, structure, method, forum

3. Translate the derivatives:

to cooperate - cooperation -

to improve -

improvement -

to assist -

assistance -

efficient -

efficiency -

to use -

usefulness -

a harmony -

to harmonize -

to attain -

attainment -

to consult -

consultative -

a tradition -

traditionally -

distinct -

distinction -

to represent -

representative -

exclusive -

exclusively -

to deposit -

depository -

to complement -

complementary -

standard -

to standardize -

to connect -

to interconnect -

to allocate -

allocation -

to arrive -

arrival -

to change -

unchanged -

to assess -

to re-assess -

4. Translate the following word combinations:

to establish a new business; to establish an organization; to maintain cooperation; to maintain friendly relations; to promote good feelings; to promote technical assistance; depository of documentation; annual basis; annual income; executive body; to approve recommendations; to approve expenses; re-assessment of functions and activities; reassessment of values; to streamline the organization; to streamline production

Section 4.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. What reference material will you use if you have to read certain mathematical signs and symbols? Do you know many of them in English?

  • 2. What parts of sentences do you know?
  • 3. What are the main types of sentences?
  • 4. What can you say about woodworking?
 
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